It is determined as the ratio of Generated Profit Amount to the Generated Revenue Amount. Cash Reserve RatiosCash Reserve Ratio refers to the share of a Bank’s total deposits that need to be maintained with the respective Country’s Central Bank to control financial supply in the economy. It provides a platform for sellers and buyers to interact and trade at a price determined by market forces.
Customers include individuals, firms, governments, other companies, importers etc. The marketing’s aim should be to find customers, develop customers, serve them well and retain them. If customers do not buy the products of a company, there is no way any company can survive, let alone succeed. A company has to understand the demographic breakup of the population of the country do design appropriate products and pragmatic marketing strategies. The marketing environment of a company comprises both actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketer’s ability to develop and maintain successful transactions with its target customers. What does micro environment consists of ___Macro environment is also known as ____Macro environment is also called as _______.Macro environment is also known as _________?
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Monetary policy measures are typically centered around interest rates and access to credit. Federal interest rate limits are one of the main levers of the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy tools. The Federal Reserve sets a federal funds rate for which federal banks borrow from each other, and this rate is used as a base rate for all credit rates in the broader market.
Stagnation is a prolonged period of little or no growth in the economy with less than 2% of annual growth. GDP in the second quarter of 2021 and is widely considered to be an important indicator of macroeconomic performance. Pete Rathburn is a copy editor and fact-checker with expertise in economics and personal finance and over twenty years of experience in the classroom.
An economy with a high incidence of savings reduces the demand for the goods and services. While analyzing the natural environment, the following natural variables may be incorporated such as the availability of natural resources, unable cost energy, increasing levels of environmental pollution, etc. The macro-environment components have a greater influence on business operations directly or indirectly or negatively or positively. Its components include legal, political, economic, social, environmental, competitive, demography, technology, etc. Demography refers to the study of the human population especially concerning sex, age, education, occupation, income size, density, cultural characteristics, lifestyle, etc. Such information about the population is significant for any business to flourish.
Every new technology replaces the existing technology and the latter goes waste. CD/DVD players have replaced cassette players, the T.V’s and home theatre systems have replaced the cinema theatres. Therefore any spending on new technology will be recovered fast by the companies. Technology is itself is a very expensive matter but those companies which do not technologically upgrade constantly will be rejected by the market. A company has to realize these facts, revamp all its operations become eco-friendly and also project the same to the society so that its products are well accepted in the market. The economic, social, and industrial development of advanced countries is due to the development of appropriate and advanced technology.
Understanding Macro Environment
Natural factors in this context mean factors relating to ecology, environment etc. The fast deteriorating conditions of ecology and environment greatly affect a company’s marketing. A liberal supply of money and credit in the economy enables the middle income class to buy high priced goods such as automobiles, apartments etc.
“What does a buyer think that eventually leads to purchasing something? ” Kotler has illustrated by taking a person who has been working hard and needs a break. He may ask himself as to what ought for attaining this break after a sustained hard work. The developments in the supplier’s environment have a substantial impact on the marketing operations of the company, since supply planning has become more important and scientific in recent years. Marketing decisions are strongly affected by laws relating to competition, price fixation, distribution arrangement, advertising, etc.
Every company should understand the factors and forces in its environment because these factors and forces, together influence the success of marketing. Even a very strong company cannot insulate itself against the influence of this environment. The marketing environment does both-present opportunities and pose threats to marketing. A wise company always understands its environment and manages their influence to its advantage.
It is necessary for a marketer to understand the legal environment of the country. Marketing decisions are strongly influenced by the political environment. The political environment comprises laws, government agencies and pressure groups. Various government agencies play an active role in environmental protection. The Environment Protection Act 1986 has given more power in the hands of Government for the protection of environment.
Analyzing a Macro Environment
There are five types of customer markets that companies might try to target. These include consumer markets, business markets, government markets, reseller markets, and the international markets. An issue that has concerned us all since the 1970s and a big concern for marketers is global population growth. The global population is expanding at unprecedented rates, even as birth rates decline in most high-population countries worldwide. Thanks to advances in modern medicine, people are staying alive longer, and it’s shifting population density while also shifting age structure.
The policy of balanced regional development encourages the government to offer infrastructure and basic facilities at cheaper rates to attract business in backward regions. This, in turn, benefits the business, not only in terms of the lower cost of such facilities but also the labor can be easily available at lower rates. It also helps to flourish all the ancillaries and supporting business.
By having a concrete understanding of all these features, marketers will know where to sell what kind of products. For example, products like heaters and electric blankets will never be of any use to equatorial and tropical regions; although these are the highly populated zones in the world. Again, air conditioners or coolers will never appeal to Western countries, living in the temperate zone. Inflation can be a powerful force, causing prices to soar and the purchasing power of one dollar to decline. Considering these macro-environment factors when taking decisions can be beneficial to your business performance; therefore it should not be overlooked. Economic determinants – like inflation levels, unemployment figures, and interest rates – have a critical influence on how businesses fare in the market.
Different societies and cultural groups are characterized by different needs, which are often based on different core values and preferences. Marketing, for any business, depends heavily on paying close attention to changes in demographics. Changes also must be passed on to operations and production to make sure the company continually meets its clients’ needs. It is important to break down what each of the factors entails to get a better idea of the factors that shape how companies operate, and, therefore, shape the macro environment. Define the components of the internal and the external business environments.
Physical distribution firms help the company to store and move goods from their points of origin to their destinations. Warehouse store and protect goods before they move to their destinations. Therefore, customers exert a very strong influence on the company and its marketing. Transport organizations enable the physical distribution of the goods.
One report stated that in your child’s lifetime, Miami, Florida, could be underwater.15 Large sections of Louisiana’s marshes separating the ocean from the coastline are submerging. Oil producers and other related corporations are being sued by that state, claiming that fossil fuel emissions have contributed to natural disasters such as climate change. Many new companies in the United States are already constructing buildings to withstand increasing flooding and predicted rising water levels.
Due to ever changing environment all information runs under a time limit of validity. Another barrier to environment scanning is the interpretation of information that has been collected. Undetermined sources can cause confusion and irrelevance to the process. Current research shows that the analysis of the market environment has challenges to predict or foresee upcoming market changes. The reason is that market scanning frameworks often suggest to observe a broad range of categories without offering detailed guidelines for what aspects to emphasize or ignore. In consequence, even firms that scan their market environment continuously get blindsided by disruptions.
Using technology in a bad way to promote the value of a brand can be just as lethal as not keeping up at all. It is essential to comprehend and plan for the future business environment from a macro level. The socio cultural factors give an idea about the predominant culture and psychographics of the target audience.
An enormous factor in the macro environment consists of is the change in family structures all over the world. The time of nuclear families is long gone and is largely maintained these days by a very small politically conservative side of the market. The majority of families in the current environment are a combination of a single parents, childless, or same-gender couples. Young couples that either have no children or are raising pets as their children have a larger disposable income than those raising kids, which will influence their spending habits. Same-gender couples are more likely to be young, less likely to have kids, and much more likely to be politically liberal and have disposable income. If you’re marketing a product that only appeals to traditional nuclear families, or if your marketing strategy only features traditional families, you may be leaving out a large portion of the consumer base.
As products become more complex the people need to know that they are safe. Marketers should develop products keeping an eye to the Consumer Protection Act. The number of educated women going outside for work has gone up considerably. The size of child population is large thus there is a good market for children’s toys, foods, furniture and many firms are offering products designed for children.
- Knowing consumers’ political leanings, diet trends, pop culture knowledge, and more are contributing factors to understanding and catering for the macro environment.
- An enormous factor in the macro environment is the change in family structures all over the world.
- The marketing manager has little control over the actions of competitors.
- A company has to understand this and do its best to carry marketing within the prevailing limitations.
There is a greatest danger of administering the delicate information which comprehends the macro-environmental factors. From equities, fixed income to derivatives, the CMSA certification bridges the gap from where you are now to where you want to be — a world-class capital markets analyst. The economic cycle is the ebb and flow of the economy between times of expansion and contraction. Gross domestic product is the monetary value of all finished goods and services made within a country during a specific period.
A public, in this context means any group which can impact an organization’s ability to achieve its objectives. The manufacturing department manufactures the goods according to the market requirements. The accounting department has to maintain accounts of all the events in the business. Scientists at present are researching on many wonderful products such as practical electric cars, cancer cure etc. Data on the macro-environmental factors are not available easily and need to be collected from various sources.
Demographic analysis deals with quantitative elements such as – age, sex, education, occupation, income, geographic concentration and dispersion, urban and rural population, etc. Thus, demography offers a consumer profile which is very essential in market segmentation and determination of target markets. Companies that do not keep up with technological change will soon find their products outdated and they will miss new opportunities. On the other hand, public concern creates a marketing opportunity for alert companies.